Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System
Fig by ISRO: Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System

India’s first human spaceflight mission, Gaganyaan, is scheduled to launch in 2024. A critical component of this mission is the Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System (GMS PS).

The GMS PS is responsible for providing the spacecraft with the thrust necessary to reach low Earth orbit (LEO), maintain its orbit, and de-orbit back to Earth

If you are looking for Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System then here we will be describing the details overview for it.

The Core Components of GMS PS

The GMS PS boasts two pivotal constituents: the Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) and the Reaction Control System (RCS). The LAM, a formidable rocket engine, propels the spacecraft to LEO, while the RCS, a cluster of nimble rocket thrusters, orchestrates the vessel’s attitude and orientation in the vast expanse of space.


  • What is GSMPS
  • What is SDM
  • Functionality

What is GSMPS?

The full form of GSMPS is Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System which is known as the service module of gaganyaan orbital module. This service module is responsible to carry two liquid propellant engines just connected below to the crew module.’

The Service Module propulsion system consists of unified bipropellant systems which has five 440N thrust engines and 16th numbers of 100N RCS Thrusters with MON3 as an oxidizer and NMH as fuel.

What is SDM?

SDM is called the System Demonstartion Model of gaganyaan service module propulsion system. The first hot test was conducted on 28th August 2021 at IPRC, Mahedragiri, Tamil Nadu with a duration of 450 seconds. The outcome of the test quite similar to the test prediction discovered earlier by isro.

Also in upcoming month several test are planned to predict the gaganyaan mission conditions which was added by ISRO. It consists of 440N & 100N thrust engines with a no of 5 and 8 respectively. It impacts a lot as it has much significance


Service module functionality is quite simple since it contains 2 propellant engines to provide the thrust to the gaganyaan module. During the take off and take down journey. The best thing is that it is present just below the crew module where the crews are there, Even if the service module is touches to the crew module it does not feel hot to them that is the special function to the SM.

NameService Module Propulsion System
Mission Gaganyaan Program

Key Features of GMS PS

The GMS PS presents an array of distinctive attributes that empower it as an able and steadfast propulsion system for human spaceflight:

  • High Thrust: A robust thrust of 440 newtons (100 pounds-force) propels the spacecraft into LEO, setting the stage for a captivating cosmic escapade.
  • High Specific Impulse: With a specific impulse of 292 seconds, the LAM showcases exceptional efficiency, generating substantial thrust with minimal fuel consumption.
  • Redundancy of Multiple Thrusters: The RCS, adorned with 16 thrusters, ensures a remarkable degree of redundancy, offering resilience against potential thruster malfunctions.
  • Precision Attitude Control: The RCS thrusters collaborate in diverse combinations to manipulate the spacecraft’s movement, enabling meticulous control during critical mission junctures.
  • Dependable Design: The GMS PS’s design and validation process adhere to the rigorous criteria of human spaceflight, reinforcing the belief in a safe and dependable voyage to LEO.

FAQs about Gaganyaan and GMS PS

What is Gaganyaan’s mission launch date?

The launch of India’s maiden human spaceflight mission, Gaganyaan, is slated for 2024.

What role does the GMS PS play in Gaganyaan’s mission?

The GMS PS, or Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System, provides the spacecraft with the thrust required for reaching low Earth orbit, maintaining its trajectory, and facilitating its safe reentry.

What are the core components of the GMS PS?

The GMS PS comprises two key components: the Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) and the Reaction Control System (RCS). The LAM propels the spacecraft, while the RCS manages its orientation and attitude.

How does the RCS ensure precision control?

The Reaction Control System (RCS) employs a network of 16 thrusters that can be fired in various combinations to create forces for rotations and translations, enabling fine-grained control during critical mission phases.

What is the significance of the GMS PS for India’s space program?

The GMS PS showcases India’s technological advancements and capabilities in space exploration. It serves as a critical component of Gaganyaan’s mission and is poised to play a crucial role in India’s future space endeavors.